How to Pay Tax as a Sole Trader

As a sole trader, you are responsible for managing all aspects of your business, including paying taxes. Unlike employees who have their taxes deducted by their employers, sole traders must ensure that they file their taxes and pay them on time. Failure to do so can result in penalties and interest charges. Here are some steps to follow to pay tax as a sole trader:

Register for Self Assessment

If you are starting as a sole trader in the UK, you need to register for self-assessment with HM Revenue and Customs (HMRC). This is done online, and you will need to provide details such as your name, contact information, and National Insurance number. You will also need to choose your accounting period, which is usually from 6 April to 5 April the following year.


Keep Accurate Records

It is essential to keep accurate records of your income and expenses throughout the tax year. This includes invoices, receipts, bank statements, and other financial records. By doing so, you can easily calculate your taxable income and claim all allowable expenses.

Consider Registering for VAT

If your business has an annual turnover of £85,000 or more, you must register for Value Added Tax (VAT) with HMRC. However, even if your turnover is below this threshold, you can still voluntarily register for VAT. This can be beneficial for your business as you can claim back the VAT on your expenses. As a sole trader, you are considered a business owner and may be required to register for VAT.

Calculate Your Taxable Profits

To calculate your taxable profits, you need to deduct allowable expenses from your total income. Allowable expenses are expenses that are wholly and exclusively for the purpose of your business. These may include office rent, business travel, and equipment costs.

Complete Your Self-Assessment Tax Return

You must complete your self-assessment tax return by the deadline. The deadline for filing paper returns is 31 October, while the deadline for online returns is 31 January. You can complete your tax return online using HMRC’s online service. You will need to provide details of your income, expenses, and any tax deductions or credits.

Class 2 & Class 4 NICs

As a sole trader in the UK, you are required to pay National Insurance contributions (NICs) on your taxable profits. There are two types of NICs that sole traders may need to pay: Class 2 and Class 4.

  • Class 2 NICs

Class 2 NICs are a flat-rate contribution that must be paid by self-employed individuals who earn more than £11,908 per year (for the tax year 2022/2023). The current rate for Class 2 NICs is £3.15 per week. Class 2 NICs are paid directly to HM Revenue and Customs (HMRC) either monthly or bi-annually, depending on your preference.

If your taxable profits are below the threshold, you may still choose to pay Class 2 NICs voluntarily in order to protect your entitlement to certain benefits such as the State Pension and Maternity Allowance.

  • Class 4 NICs

Class 4 NICs are paid on your taxable profits above £11,909. For the tax year 2022/2023, you will pay Class 4 NICs at a rate of 9.73% on profits between £11,909 and £50,270, and 2.73% on profits above £50,270. These contributions are paid as part of your Self Assessment tax bill, which is due on 31 January following the end of the tax year.

Income Tax Rates for Sole Traders

As a sole trader in the UK, you are required to pay income tax on your taxable profits. The amount of income tax you pay will depend on your total taxable income and any tax reliefs you are entitled to. Here are the current income tax rates for sole traders in the UK:

  • Personal Allowance

The Personal Allowance is the amount of income you can earn before you start paying income tax. For the tax year 2022/2023, the Personal Allowance is £12,570. This means that you will not pay any income tax on the first £12,570 of your taxable profits.

  • Basic Rate

For the tax year 2022/2023, the basic rate of income tax is 20%. This rate applies to taxable profits between £12,571 and £50,270.

  • Higher Rate

The higher rate of income tax is 40% and applies to taxable profits between £50,271 and £150,000 for the tax year 2022/2023.

  • Additional Rate

If your taxable profits are over £150,000, you will pay income tax at the additional rate of 45%.

  • Tax allowances and reliefs

There are also a range of tax allowances and reliefs that can reduce your taxable profits and therefore your income tax bill. For example, you may be able to claim expenses incurred while carrying out your business, such as the cost of materials, office rent, or travel expenses.

It is important to keep accurate records of your income and expenses in order to calculate your taxable profits correctly and claim any applicable tax allowances and reliefs.

Pay Your Tax Bill

Once you have completed your self-assessment tax return, you will receive a tax bill from HMRC. You must pay this bill by the deadline, which is 31 January. If you fail to pay your tax bill on time, you may incur interest and penalties.

Consider Making Payments on Account

As a sole trader, you may be required to make payments on account. This means you make two payments each year towards your next tax bill. The first payment is due on 31 January, and the second payment is due on 31 July. Payments on account are calculated based on your previous year’s tax bill. If you believe your tax bill for the current year will be lower, you can apply to reduce your payments on account.

In conclusion, paying tax as a sole trader requires careful planning, record-keeping, and timely action. By following these steps, you can ensure that you comply with your tax obligations and avoid penalties and interest charges. It is also advisable to seek the advice of a professional accountant or tax advisor to help you manage your tax affairs more efficiently.

If you’re looking for tax Accountants in Bolton to help with your self assessment tax return, please feel free to contact us.